Having a baby is the most exciting event in life. The joy is undeniable but, there is always a risk involved. One of the most significant risks is death during delivery. Although you may not think that it is a serious risk, there are a number of reasons why babies die during delivery. Here are a few common types of pregnancy-related deaths that you should be aware of.
Preterm premature rupture of membranes
Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) occurs in about one-fourth to one-third of all preterm births. This complication is associated with significant perinatal morbidity, including neonatal mortality.
PPROM is a condition that requires close observation and intervention by physicians, because it can increase the risk of chorioamnionitis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and neonatal sepsis. It may also increase the risk of limb deformities.
The incidence of PPROM is highest in developing countries. It is also associated with high neonatal mortality and morbidity, due to severe chorioamnionitis.
PPROM is often diagnosed by an ultrasound, wherein a high-frequency sound wave creates images of blood vessels, and fetal membranes. Ultrasound also can detect ruptured membranes. Other laboratory tests, such as an amniocentesis, can confirm the diagnosis.
A study of 430 women with preterm PROM found no improvement in major neonatal morbidity after 34 weeks’ gestation. However, the duration of stay in neonatal intensive care was similar between groups. In addition, the average umbilical cord pH was lower in the conservatively managed group.
Although the exact pathophysiology of PPROM is not completely understood, it is known that prolonged rupture of membranes increases the risk of intra-amniotic infection. Moreover, corticosteroids can accelerate fetal lung maturity.
One of the earliest signs of a preterm PROM is a speculum exam showing fluid pooling in the posterior vaginal fornix. After that, a nitrazine test can confirm the presence of amniotic fluid.
Risk factors for PPROM include multiple fetuses, cerclage, cervical incompetency, and short inter-pregnancy interval. Short intervals between pregnancies may cause depletion of maternal nutrition and cervical incompetency.
During pregnancy, the uterus can stretch and rupture membranes. If the membranes are ruptured, the amniotic fluid can escape before the fetus is born. Usually, this occurs before the labor begins.
Nulliparity is the fancy name for a woman who has never had a child. Among women in their teens, it is estimated that 12% have a hard time getting pregnant. Using contraception is the easiest way to go. In the event that pregnancy is not in the cards, an intrauterine device (IOL) is a viable option. As far as delivery methods are concerned, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) states that intrauterine devices and vaginal delivery are the safest and most conservative options.
Getting pregnant may not be as difficult as you thought. The best method of doing so is to keep your hormones in check. You should also consider regular screenings for cancer, especially the breast and ovarian, as well as other maladies of the reproductive tract. Getting a nulliparous female pregnant may be easier than you think. Luckily, there are a myriad of contraceptive methods available to you, from pills and patches to implanted contraceptives. Taking care of yourself can lead to a healthier baby and less stress on the parent-child bond.
Choosing a good doctor is the most important part of this process. Your healthcare provider will be able to suggest the most effective methods of contraception for your specific circumstances. If you are a nulliparous female, don’t hesitate to ask questions. Having a baby is a lifelong commitment, and you deserve to be well informed about your options before you commit. Most nulliparous females can safely use most forms of contraception. However, you should not attempt to conceive without medical supervision. A nulliparous female may not be eligible for Medicare, Medicaid, or most other insurance plans.
Breech PVDs vs breech PCDs
Breech presentation refers to a fetus born with a head in a position not typical for term pregnancy. Breech presentation is associated with more obstetric complications, and can result in excess neonatal morbidity. The National Institute of Health and Care Excellence guideline states that all women in preterm labor with a singleton breech foetus should have a caesarean section.
Two large retrospective multicenter studies found that preterm breech fetuses delivered by primary cesarean section had lower risk of death in the first month of life than breech fetuses in cephalic presentations. However, the results did not reach statistical significance.
Breech PVDs have a higher risk of entrapment of the aftercoming head compared to PCDs. In addition, the neonatal mortality rate in the PVD group was twice as high as the PCD group. But despite these differences, it is important to understand that most breech babies are healthy.
A Cochrane review found that the evidence to recommend a specific mode of delivery based on fetal presentation is limited. It also found that a slightly elevated short-term risk of SAMM did not translate into a significantly higher long-term risk.
The study’s findings were not surprising, but the conclusions were tempered by the potential confounds involved. For example, breech PVDs may have a shorter labor than PCDs, but the difference in the neonatal mortality rates does not appear to be statistically significant.
One possible explanation for the higher neonatal mortality in breech PVDs is the risk of head entrapment. Head entrapment can be a cause of premature death, and the researchers found that the risk of head entrapment is highest at the lowest gestational ages.
Type of breech
A breech birth is an extremely risky procedure, and it is essential to be properly educated before attempting to deliver a baby in this position. Breech babies are highly vulnerable to injury or death, and are especially susceptible to umbilical cord compression.
One of the most common risks of breech birth is cord prolapse. Cord prolapse occurs when the umbilical cord is compressed, which disrupts the flow of blood and oxygen to the baby Newrest muslim funeral. The resulting hypoxia may cause brain damage.
Although a cesarean delivery is often recommended for breech presentation, a vaginal delivery is possible. Vaginal breech delivery is a safe and effective alternative for many women with breech presentation, but it can still carry some risks.
Risks of a vaginal breech delivery include excessive force during delivery. This can damage the spine and internal organs.
Another risk is that the cervix does not have enough room to accommodate the baby’s size. In addition, the head can become trapped. Also, there is a risk of asphyxia, which is caused by reduced oxygen flow to the baby.
The most common type of breech presentation is frank breech. Frank breech is similar to the complete breech, with the feet near the baby’s face. However, the foot is lower in the sacrum than in the complete breech.
There are two other positions, which are sacro-transverse and sacro-anterior. Sacro-transverse is when the child’s legs are positioned sideways, while sacro-anterior is when the feet are positioned sacro-anterior to the legs.
Some of the complications of breech birth include: hydrocephalus (increased head size), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), placental abruption, and neonatal resuscitation. It is important to be trained in breech delivery and to have a competent medical staff.
Effects of immediate resuscitation on neonatal deaths
Immediate resuscitation is a critical step in the care of newborns. In low resource settings, immediate resuscitation can play an important role in preventing neonatal death.
Neonatal resuscitation is the provision of emergency medical interventions and equipment for a newborn baby during the first few minutes after birth. Resuscitation involves manual ventilation, airway clearance, and tactile stimulation. Several studies have shown that these techniques help reduce the risk of neonatal death.
Birth asphyxia is one of the leading causes of neonatal deaths. It is caused by an excessive amount of fluid in the throat or mouth. The excess fluid is removed using a bulb syringe or suction catheter.
Reduction of neonatal mortality is a goal of many countries. Although resuscitation is often indicated in babies with the most congenital malformations, it is also sometimes necessary in a variety of conditions. Approximately 10% of newborns require assistance to begin breathing. However, most of these cases can be prevented with proper identification of risk factors and preparation.
One of the most important factors is access to intrapartum obstetric care. In resource-limited settings, there is a shortage of trained birth attendants. Providing these individuals with basic neonatal resuscitation skills can significantly decrease neonatal deaths.
A systematic review of studies in databases identified 14 relevant studies. Results showed that resuscitation-specific training reduced RR in two studies, but not in other studies. Similarly, providing neonatal resuscitation training to TBAs decreased RR in three studies, but not in the other three.
Although specific training in neonatal resuscitation may improve outcomes, the impact is limited by the loss of skills over time and the transfer of skills into clinical practice.